goat (Capra) it's a mammal animal of robust body with horns and cloven hooves. They are members of the Bovidae family, which also includes antelopes, bovine y sheep, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Other members of the Capragenus are the mountain goat, markhors, and turs, which are sometimes referred to as mountain goats. Mountain goats are the only living species in the genus Oreamnos.

Species

There are two types of goats: the domestic goat (goat), which are raised as farm animals; and the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), which live in rugged and rocky areas of the American Northwest.

The goat was the first domesticated animal in history.

Goat taxonomy

  • Reino: Animalia
    • Sub-Kingdom: Bilateria
      • Infra-Kingdom: Deuterostomy
  • Wire: Chordate
    • Subphile: Vertebrates
      • Infrafilo: Gnathostomata
  • Superclass: Tetrapoda
    • Class: Mammals
      • Subclass: Theria
        • CRIME: Eutería
  • Order: Artiodáctilos
  • Family: Bovidae
  • Subfamily: Goats
  • Genera and species:
    • Oreamnos americanus (mountain goat)
    • goat (domestic goat)
  • Subspecies:
    • Capra hircus aegagrus (bezoares, or wild goat), found in western Asia
    • Capra hircus chialtanensis (Chiltan goat), found in west-central Pakistan
    • Capra hircus cretica (Cretan goat, kri-kri, agrimi or Cretan mountain goat), present in the eastern Mediterranean.
    • Goat Goat Goat
    • Capra hircus jourensis
    • Goat picture

Features

When you imagine a goat, the image of a domesticated animal on a farm probably comes to mind. The domestic goat (Capra hircus) seen today, however, is the result of taming the mountain goat (Capra aegagrus). Wild goats live throughout Eastern Europe and in the central and south-western parts of Asia, and although they are similar to their domestic counterparts, they are clearly their own entities.

Physical characteristics of the domestic goat

These members of the Bovidae family exist in a variety of different coat colors, including brown, tan, red, black, and white. Some domestic goats also have several different colors in their coats. Females tend to be smaller than males. Domestic goats display horns that are erect rather than curly, and both genders can have them, as can whiskers.

Domestic goats live all over the world in many places, especially on farms. As long as there is grass around, these goats can get by. Due to their tame nature, they are suitable in areas that have fences that can prevent predators from accessing them. These grazing creatures consume a lot of grass, both dry and fresh. Leaves are another important staple of the domestic goat diet, whether it be from shrubs, trees, or shrubs.

Characteristics of the wild goat

Wild goats are considerably more robust than domestic goats. Wild goats have very thick and coarse hairs, which are usually white, red, black, brown, or gray. As with domestic goats, mountain goats can also have several different colors in their coats. Both sexes have horns, but male wild goats are much larger than females. His horns they are also much larger than those of domestic goats. Again, as with domestic goats, both sexes of wild goats can be bearded.

Wild goats live in many different countries, from Iran and Lebanon to Syria and Pakistan. They thrive in coniferous forests and in rugged mountainous regions, especially those that have extensive vegetation and stony outcrops. Wild goats are especially prevalent in dry and arid places. In terms of diet, they consume a lot of tree bark, berries, foliage, twigs, and grass.

The mountain goat is a wild goat.

Size

Mountain goats can weigh 57 to 82 kilograms and grow 124 to 178 centimeters long. Their black horns grow up to 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) long. They do not shed their horns, so the age of a goat can be determined by counting the annual growth rings. Both male and female mountain goats have horns.

There are about 200 breeds of domestic goats, according to the Smithsonian Institution, so sizes vary wildly. One of the smallest breeds, the Nigerian pygmy goat, weighs around 9 kg. Pygmy goats weigh 24 to 39 kg. The Anglo-Nubian goat weighs up to 113 kg.

Behavior

Goats are very social creatures and live in groups called herds, which can contain up to 20 goats in the wild. Mountain goats are more social during the winter and tend to go alone in the summer. In herds, there is a dominant female throughout the year, until the mating season. At this time a male dominates the herd. Often times, males only live with a few males or alone throughout the year.

The goats are diurnal and they typically spend their days grazing on pastures within their range, which is an area of ​​about 23 square kilometers, according to the ADW. Mountain goats dig 25 to 50 mm of depression in the ground to sleep, rest, and bathe in dust.

Habitat

Mountain goats are found in the Rocky Mountains, typically in Alaska, western Montana, central Idaho, South Dakota, Colorado, and Washington. The wide extension of their cloven hooves allows them to easily climb the steep slopes of the mountains. They generally live at elevations of 1000 to 5000 meters above sea level.

Domestic goats are raised around the world in almost all types of terrestrial biomes. The main habitat requirements for a domestic goat are grass to eat and a clean, ventilated shelter.

Food

The goats are herbivorous, which means that they only eat vegetation. Their favorite food is grass, although mountain goats also eat moss and plants. Many domestic goats also eat garbage, houseplants, or whatever else they find lying around.

Goats grab food with their lips and put it in their mouths, according to the Smithsonian. The upper jaw is wider than the lower jaw, so they can only use one side of their mouth to grind food. This causes the rotary motion seen when a goat (or a vaca) is chewing.

Goats are ruminants, and like cattle, they have four stomach compartments. He rumen it can hold from 15 to 23 liters; the reticle can hold from 0.98 to 1.9 liters; he omaso can hold up to 0.98 liter and the abomasum it can hold up to 3.8 liters. It takes 11-15 hours for food to pass through a goat's digestive system.

Predators

When raising goats, one of the main concerns of many Farmers is to keep your flock safe from predators. While wildlife predators vary by geographic location, predators Dogs from the neighborhood are the most common offenders of goats. At the same time, the use of dogs for livestock is a method of preventing predators.

Canine species

Since domestic dogs are among the most common goat predators, it stands to reason that wild canine species such as coyotes, Wolves and foxes, also prey on goats and other animals.

Coyotes are one of the most common livestock predators. They typically attack with a bite to the throat. Wolves typically feed on larger cattle, but will attack and kill goats if available. The foxes will attack the kids. While wild predators attack for food and typically only kill one animal every few days, a group of neighborhood dogs can kill 20 to 30 goats in one night, often just for sport.

Cats

Although the neighbor's dog can be a threat to goats, the cat it will not be. However, mountain lions and wildcats will target goats and other animals when available. The young are usually the target of the wildcats, while the Cougars they are usually the target of larger animals. Cougars are capable of killing an entire herd of goats in a single night.

We can appreciate the eye of the goat

Other animals

Other predators depend on the location of the goats and their age. In areas with large populations of Eagles, the little ones are vulnerable to attack. The pigs Wild animals also pose a threat to young goat babies. The Bears they are another common predator. After killing a female goat, or hind, a bear often eats only the udders.

Predator control

While neighborhood dogs pose a threat to goats, livestock-trained dogs, such as those from the Great Pyrenees, offer protection to the herd. Other animals that protect predators include donkeys, The flames and alpacas. In addition to providing animal companionship for your goats, electric fencing helps keep wild animals out of goat pens. Since most wild predators they hunt at night, bringing the goat herd to a barn at sunset offers protection, especially during the spring breeding season when wild animals are hunting to feed their young and young goats are especially vulnerable.

Reproduction

The goats are viviparous animals who give birth to one or two young in spring after a gestation period of 150 to 180 days.

Within minutes of being born, the young get up and walk. At three or four months they are weaned, and at 30 months they are ready to have children of their own. Wild goats typically have a lifespan of 9 to 12 years.

State of conservation

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), most wild goats are considered vulnerable, threatened or endangered. For example, Capra hircus aegagrus is considered vulnerable due to an estimated population decline of around 30 percent in the last three generations.

A cousin of the goat, the Caucasian Capra, or West Caucasian tur, a goat antelope that inhabits the Caucasus Mountains, is considered endangered by the IUCN due to an estimated population decline of more than 50 percent in recent years. three generations.

Popular culture

  • Mountain goats can jump 3,5 meters in a single jump, according to National Geographic.
  • Mountain goats have bright white coats that help them blend in with the snowy areas of their home areas.
  • Domestic goats have yellow, chocolate, or black fur.
  • Goats were one of the first domesticated animals and were first domesticated around 9.000 years ago, according to the Smithsonian.
  • In bright light, the pupil in a goat's eye is rectangular rather than round.
  • Goat meat - called chevon or kid - is consumed throughout the world.
  • More people consume goat's milk than the milk of any other animal.

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