Vertebrate animals are all those that have a skeletal system (bones, spine and skull), unlike invertebrate animals they don't have it. They are called vertebrates thanks to their backbone. The vertebral column of vertebrate animals acts as a central axis, separating the bone system into two equal parts, like a mirror.

Although there are vertebrate animals with an external skeleton, such as the turtle, for its shell, the crocodile for its skin, and fish for their scales. All species of vertebrate animals have red blood cells in their blood (which gives it that red color). For us to consider an animal as a vertebrate it must have a skull and a spinal column.

There are cold-blooded vertebrate animals (Reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and warm-blooded vertebrate animals (Birds and mammals). We have 5 different types, mammals, which are the only viviparous animals on this list and we also have birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (All these oviparous). They all share lung breathing.

Vertebrate animals have skeletons

Vertebrate animals have skeletons

Types of vertebrate animals


Vertebrate animals mammals They have fur covered skin, four limbs, they are warm-blooded, as we have mentioned before, they are viviparous (They are born inside the mother's womb) and the females have mammary glands, which they use to suckle their young by giving them milk.


Aerial vertebrate animals (Poultry) have two of their 4 winged limbs and although they all have wings, not all can fly. They are oviparous (hatched from eggs) and warm-blooded. All birds have a characteristic beak and feathers.


Vertebrate animals reptiles They are cold-blooded, oviparous and their skin is scaly (covered with scales), they move by crawling, although some species have legs. They withstand heat very well although some species can survive in icy waters.


Vertebrate animals amphibians They are bare skin and need to be constantly wet, they have four limbs and a tail, that is why their habitat is always near rivers, lakes, etc. Like reptiles they hatch from eggs and are cold blooded.


The fish They have a branchial respiratory system (They breathe through gills), they are cold-blooded and oviparous. Its main characteristic is that they live in water, some species in salt water and others in fresh water.

Reproduction in vertebrate animals

There are three types of reproduction in vertebrate animals; viviparous, oviparous and ovoviviparous.

Viviparous animals

The viviparous animals are those that are born inside the mother's womb and form a fetus within a structure where they receive oxygen and nutrients until the female calves (gestation time varies according to the species), they feed on breast milk until they grow and they can feed by other means.

Oviparous animals

The oviparous animals they are gestated inside eggs. The females lay the eggs and their young develop outside the mother's body, while they are gestating inside the egg they feed with the nutrients that the egg itself provides.

Ovoviviparous animals

The ovoviviparous animals They are a mixture of the two previous ones, the female retains the eggs inside her body until they are ready to hatch, the embryo is formed inside the egg and receives the nutrients from the egg, like the oviparous ones. The eggs hatch when the female expels them from her body, being born already formed and ready to live.


We can divide these animals into two large groups, carnivores, those who eat meat, or herbivores, which eat herbs.


Respiration consists of taking in oxygen, from water or air, and releasing carbon dioxide. There are two types of breathing; the pulmonary and the branchial.

Lung breathing

Pulmonary respiration is achieved thanks to the lungs and is present in almost all types of vertebrate animals, its function is to breathe in (swallow oxygen) and breathe out (release carbon dioxide).

Gill breathing

The gill is somewhat more complex and is only present in fish. They take in the air, which passes through the gills, which they use as a filter, the gills retain the oxygen particles and filter the water through sheets that are in the gills (Operculum).

List of vertebrate animals

We can clearly distinguish the features of the emerald bee-eater.

Abejaruco Esmeralda

abejaruco esmeralda (Merops Orientalis) is a exquisite bird of bright emerald green plumage. The wings show black trailing edges. The outer feathers of the lower part of the tail are bright gray, and the medium rectrices are long and purple. The streamers can reach up to 7 cm in male. The black bill is long and curved downwards. The eyes are very intense red. The legs and feet are blackish.

Acara electric blue

andean cara pulcher is acara blue (Andinoacara beautiful) is a little fish That many people collect in their fish tanks, there is a good reason, its Latin name, pulcher, means beautiful. These little aquatic animals captivate any fish tank.

The eagle is a solitary animal.


Eagle (Hieraatus Spilogaster) is a bird boy. With the exception of some vultures, eagles are generally larger than other raptors. They have strong muscular legs, powerful claws, and large hooked beaks that allow them to rip meat from their prey.

The albatross spends most of its life flying.


albatross (Diomedeidae) is a marine feathered giant which has the longest wingspan of all birds wild, the wandering albatross is the largest of about two dozen different species.

A moose resting

I raised

elk (Moose moose) is the largest member of the family of deer Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). Moose are striking in appearance due to their imposing size, black color, long legs, hanging snout, and hairy hanging dewlap (called a bell) and the huge, wide, flat antlers of old bulls.

electric eel

electric eel

electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) it is an aquatic animal native to the waters of South America (Orinoco and the Amazon River). They have the ability to produce a 500-volt electrical discharge at a distance of approximately 76 meters in calm water. Its discharge is so powerful that it damages any heavy mammal, it can even cause its death, as narrated by Alexander von Humboldt, a famous explorer of the XNUMXth century, who witnessed how horses received such strong shocks throughout their bodies that they died instantly .